• Home
  • > Selected Papers
  • > Volume 1
  • > Involvement and subjectivity in the linguistic description of counterfactual scenarios in chess commentaries

Involvement and subjectivity in the linguistic description of counterfactual scenarios in chess commentaries

This study investigates how commentators at different levels of involvement construe counterfactual scenarios in a discourse-specific corpus, chess commentaries. Differences in the linguistic formation of these scenes are discussed in terms of the notion of subjectivity. Findings show that while the involved commentators use more markers of epistemic attitude, neutral commentators construe time and the players more subjectively. Nonetheless, a systematic difference between the two groups is that involved commentators seem to strive for bigger precision through the use of more linguistic form. The analysis implies that the different understandings of subjectivity are hardly compatible. Moreover, the concept of “involvement” profits from being treated as a variable that needs to be clearly defined.

Keywords: subjectivity, involvement, counterfactual, chess

References

Athanasiadou, A. (2006). Adjectives and subjectivity. In A. Athanasiadou, C. Canakis, and B. Cornillie (eds.), Subjectification: Various Paths to Subjectivity. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.  pp. 209-239.

Benveniste, E. (1971). Subjectivity in language. In Problems in General Linguistics.  Trans. M.E. Meek. Coral Gables.  FL: University of Miami Press. pp. 223-230. [Original edition 1958]  

Biber, D. and Finegan, E. (1988). Adverbial stance types in English. Discourse Processes 11: 1-34.

Brisard, F. (2006). Logic, subjectivity, and the semantics/pragmatics distinction. In A. Athanasiadou, C. Canakis, and B. Cornillie (eds.), Subjectification: Various Paths to Subjectivity. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.  pp. 41-74.

Carey, K. (1995). Subjectification and the development of the English perfect. In D. Stein and S. Wright (eds.), Subjectivity and Subjectivisation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  pp.83-102.                                                                                                                         

Cornillie, B. (2009). Evidentiality and epistemic modality. On the close relationship between two different categories. Functions of Language 16 (1): 44-62.

De Smet, H. and Verstraete, J-C. (2006). Coming to terms with subjectivity. Cognitive Linguistics 17 (3): 365-392.

Finegan, E. (1995). Subjectivity and subjectivisation: An introduction. In D. Stein and S. Wright (eds.), Subjectivity and Subjectivisation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  pp. 1-15.                                                                                                                         

Fleischman, S. (1990). Tense and Narrativity. From Medieval Performance to Modern Fiction. Austin: University of Texas.       

Gilbert, D.T., Morewedge, C.K., Risen, J.L. and Wilson, T.D. (2004). Looking forward to looking backward: The misprediction of regret. Psychological Science 15 (5): 346-350.

Girotto, V., Ferrante, D., Pighin, S. and Gonzalez, M. (2007). Postdecisional counterfactual thinking by actors and readers. Psychological Science 18 (6): 510-515.

Gorrell, R. (1995). The future of past tenses. English Today 44, 11 (4): 25-27.

Kemmer, S. (1995). Emphatic and reflexive –self: Expectations, viewpoint, and subjectivity. In D. Stein and S. Wright (eds.), Subjectivity and Subjectivisation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  pp. 55-82.                               

Langacker, R.W. (1985). Observations and speculations on subjectivity. In J. Haiman (ed.), Iconicity in Syntax. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 109-150.  

Langacker, R.W. (1990). Subjectification. Cognitive Linguistics 1: 5-38.

Langacker, R.W. (1991). Foundations of Cognitive Grammar, vol. 2: Descriptive Application. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Langacker, R.W. (2003). Extreme subjectification: English tense and modals. In H. Cuyckens, T. Berg, R. Dirven, and K-U. Panther (eds.), Motivation in Language: Studies in Honor of Günter Radden. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 3-26.  

Langacker, R.W. (2006). Subjectification, grammaticization, and conceptual archetypes. In A. Athanasiadou, C. Canakis, and B. Cornillie (eds.), Subjectification: Various Paths to Subjectivity. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.  pp. 17-40.

Lyons, J. (1982). Deixis and subjectivity: Loquor, ergo sum? In R. J. Jarvella and W. Klein (eds.), Speech, Place, and Action: Studies in Deixis and Related Topics. Chichester: John Wiley.  pp. 101-124.

Mortelmans, T. (2006). Langacker’s ‘subjectification’and ‘grounding’: A more gradual view. In A. Athanasiadou, C. Canakis, and B. Cornillie (eds.), Subjectification: Various Paths to Subjectivity. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.  pp. 151-175.

Nikiforidou, K. and Katis, D. (2000). Subjectivity and conditionality: The marking of speaker involvement in Modern Greek. In A. Foolen and F. van der Leek (eds.), Constructions in Cognitive Linguistics: Selected Papers from the International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, Amsterdam, 1997. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  pp. 217-238.

Nuyts, J. (2001). Subjectivity as an evidential dimension in epistemic modal expressions. Journal of Pragmatics 33: 383-400.

Pander Maat, H. and Degand, L. (2001).  Scaling causal relations and connectives in terms of speaker involvement. Cognitive Linguistics 12 (3): 211-245.  

Pit, M. (2003). How to Express Yourself with a Causal Connective: Subjectivity and Causal Connectives in Dutch, German and French.  Amsterdam: Rodopi.                                                                                                                                  

Traugott, E.C. (1982). From propositional to textual and expressive meanings: Some semantic-pragmatic aspects of grammaticalization.  In W.P. Lehmann and Y. Malkiel (eds.), Perspectives on Historical Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 245-271.

Traugott, E.C. (1989). On the rise of epistemic meanings in English: an example of subjectification in semantic change. Language 65: 31-55.

Traugott, E.C. (1995). Subjectification in grammaticalisation. In D. Stein and S. Wright (eds.), Subjectivity and Subjectivisation.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  pp. 31-54.                                                                                                                           

Download

Download full text of the article as PDF